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Rules and regulations for UAV

Discussions about anything and everything UAV / Drone related.

Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby robone » Tue Sep 25, 2012 10:52 pm

Have you guys seen this.

Okay, I tried to upload it but it is somewhere around 800 Kb

I will try again tomorrow.

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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby JohanMoelich » Wed Sep 26, 2012 8:55 am

Nope, haven't seen it because you couldn't upload it. :mrgreen:
Is it the new AMA rules for the Yanks for FPV flying?
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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby robone » Wed Sep 26, 2012 9:19 am

From http://www.caa.co.za/

You can also download their document. "Operation of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems" which is the file that I was trying to upload.

THE FUTURE IS HERE!

INTRODUCTION

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) also designated as Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) by the international community and ICAO come in a variety of shapes, sizes, complexity and serve diverse purposes worldwide. They may have a wingspan as large as a Boeing 737 or be smaller than a radio-controlled model aircraft.

Remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) have been used successfully for military operations across the world, mainly for intelligence gathering, surveillance, target identification and reconnaissance.

South Africa has been highly successful in the development and application of remotely piloted aircraft systems for military operations. However, in recent years, the demand for their use for civilian purposes in civil airspace has steadily increased. South Africa, for example, is one of the first countries that successfully used remotely piloted aircraft systems for civilian missions, such as the monitoring of the 1994 Democratic Elections and carrying out crime prevention operations with the SEEKER II.

Lately there has been a steady demand for use in the civilian sector, including commercial photography, aerial mapping, crop monitoring, health specimen transportation, advertising, law enforcement purposes, communications and broadcasting. Remotely piloted aircraft systems are considered for various reasons such as increased efficiency, financial savings, enhanced air safety and even saving lives.

THE SACAA’S ROLE: SAFETY FIRST

The SACAA has been mandated and empowered by the Civil Aviation Act No 13 of 2009, to regulate and control the airworthiness and environmental compatibility of all aircraft as well as the safety regulation of their operations and flight crew.

Traditionally, all regulations for flight have been written on the assumption that a person would be in the cockpit of an aircraft. RPAS operations require the consideration of every aspect of controlled flight, with a specific focus on what is needed to ensure an acceptable level of safety for RPA flights.

The operation of RPAS in South Africa is currently not governed by any regulations. However, in 2008 the SACAA took a proactive step by establishing an Unmanned Aircraft Systems Coordinating Committee (UASCOCOM) to look at this aspect. Its role was to deliver standards and guidance that would ensure the safety operation of RPAS in all airspace classes. Further, a new unit was established during the same year to liaise with industry experts with regards to the RPAS regulatory framework, i.e. the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) unit. Details of required technical resources job profiles for the unit were established and approved by the end of 2008, with the primary focus being on airworthiness, operations and systems as a start. A structure was approved in 2009, but never implemented. It must be noted that RPAS are indeed aircraft; therefore in essence the existing regulations, technical standards and ICAO SARPs also apply to them.

TECHNICAL ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED

In order for the project, or the SACAA, to succeed in developing the industry involved in RPAS, key challenges relating to specific technical and regulatory areas need to be addressed by the technical departments/divisions. They are:

1. Operational requirements addressing the following aspects:
a. Airspace requirements and limitations
b. Flight Crew Licensing (FCL) and Training
c. Requirements for RPAS operations and Organisations
2. Airworthiness Certification: establishment/development of certification requirements and certification specifications for RPAS below 150 kg,
a. Fixed wing RPAS
b. Rotor Wing RPAS
3. Detect and avoid concepts for RPAS focus on:
a. Defining performance requirements and functions for RPAS Detect and Avoid or Sense and Avoid (DAA/SAA) systems compensating for the absence of the human pilot on board;
b. Establishing safety objectives relating to the risk of collision in all aviation systems.
4. Command, Control and Communications (C3) focus on
a. Establishing performance requirements (operational and technical) applicable to this new aspect of the aviation industry.
5. RPAS System Safety
a. This must define high level RPAS airworthiness and system safety objectives
b. RPAS failure classifications in terms of severity definition and probability requirements.

The magnitude of this project dictates that all divisions of the SACAA must be fully involved – no observers, and this is certainly not a one-man show or piece-meal job!

All five areas are currently being discussed /debated at international level – ICAO UASSG, JARUS, RTCA and EUROCAE. The ICAO documents, Manuals and SARPs are being reviewed and drafted, for example Annexes 2 & 7 have been finalized. State Letters have been sent to contracting States, to respond to the ICAO panels, for promulgation by the 15th of November 2012.

OPERATION OF RPAS IN SOUTH AFRICA

All civilian RPAS registered in South Africa, or operated by an entity established in South Africa, shall be subject to the SACAA’s aviation safety and security oversight, including their operators, pilots and maintenance personnel.

Furthermore, all civilian RPAS operators established outside South Africa, wishing to conduct commercial aerial work in the airspace over South African territory, shall request and obtain authorisation from the SACAA prior to the commencement of such operations.

Existing SACAA policies and procedures, applicable to airworthiness certification, design, manufacturing, maintenance organisations and air operators shall form the basis for the approval process of any entity involved in the operation of RPAS.

CURRENT DEMANDS

The demand for civilian use by the local industry has been tremendous; on average the Unmanned Aircraft office receives three queries a week. Most enquirers have no aviation background, an additional task therefore rest on the SACAA RPAS unit educate those individuals who already owns a complicated RPAS that he/she may not legally operate.

It is almost certain that a number of operations locally are ‘carried’ out by various individuals, organisations and entities for commercial purposes not approved by this Authority.

There is a definite need for the SACAA to support the local industry by way of interim technical guidance material based on existing standards, SARPs and the ICAO Circular Cir 328. This should be used as a living document to allow a smooth evolution of RPAS into civil airspace, and to be in step with world developments. Participation in or at the world forums has enabled the SACAA access to other NAAs reference/guidance documents pertaining to RPAS.

WAY FORWARD

“A journey of a thousand miles begins with one step!” The SACAA as the organ of State has a serious obligation to support ICAO developments on RPAS.

We are looking forward to an exciting but challenging new era in the aviation chapter.
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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby robone » Wed Sep 26, 2012 9:28 am

There is another document that says it will be introduced or legislated by 2015 http://www.caa.co.za/resource%20center/Unmanned%20Aircraft/UAS%20FAQ.htm
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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby JohanMoelich » Wed Sep 26, 2012 10:47 am

Interesting. They do say a lot without actually saying anything new. :hmmm: I understand that these topics are under discussion with the CAA, but as far as I know it's been under discussion for many years. They just pointed out the details of what they are discussing now.

Something I have a problem with is their definition of a UAV or RPAS. According to their definitions, all radio controlled aircraft fall in those categories. Whether it is a tiny indoor heli or a 1/3 scale monster of a plane, they are all UAVs or RPAS's.
So will all these regulations (actually they're advisories, not regulations) affect everyone who fly radio control planes? Not possible. So when do my radio control plane become a UAV or RPAS? I still fly it via regular radio control, but with the difference that I look at a video feed instead of looking directly at the plane. They don't mention FPV or video feed anywhere. So are they only talking about planes that fly by autopilot, with waypoints?
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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby HermanB » Sun Oct 14, 2012 5:53 pm

I may be dumb, but from what I understand everything is in the talk stage. No set regulations. Are we allowed to legally fly multirotors - FPV or not, for commercial purposes?
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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby robone » Mon Feb 04, 2013 4:13 pm

I have heard from a reliable source that the promulgation of UAV laws has been postponed. I am still trying to verify this.

And from the same source, I have heard that they have now started prosecuting people who fly FPV or with waypoints that are not LOS.

If anyone knows any more information, it would be good to hear
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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby JohanMoelich » Mon Feb 04, 2013 4:28 pm

Your source is not perhaps confusing his info with the recently submitted bill aiming to regulate UAV flight in Oregon and 4 other USA states?
I doubt anything would happen to FPV flyers in SA, as there are no laws prohibiting us to fly FPV.
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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby robone » Mon Feb 04, 2013 5:20 pm

No, there is no confusion as he came from a meeting with the CAA in Pretoria.

Apparently all aircraft are governed by the existing laws in place and if you are a member of Samaa you can fly under their rules as long as it is on a registered field. The law states that you have to have a qualified pilot flying and it does not mention FPV or Waypoints.

And the rules for flying FPV under SAMAA are:

1.) An FPV – equipped model must be flown by two SAMAA Members utilising a buddy box system. The pilot in command must be on the primary transmitter, maintain visual contact, be prepared to assume control in the event of a problem.
2.) The operational range of the model is limited to the pilot in command`s line of sight. or as set out in (3) below.
3.) The limit of the flight path of model operations shall be limited to the designated flying site and the approved overfly area.
4.) the model weight and speed shall be limited to a maximum of 10 lbs and 60 miles per hour.(100 Km/h)
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Re: Rules and regulations for UAV

Postby JohanMoelich » Mon Feb 04, 2013 5:29 pm

Interesting, the first part. The regulations in the second part were adopted by SAMAA directly from the AMA regs. The AMA have dropped the buddy box rule since then. i wonder if the SAMAA will follow suit, or actually do their own research on FPV and decide for themselves.
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